The Philippine Republic

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khách The Philippine Republic

Bài gửi by ronaldjjjnooo on 12/11/10, 08:39 am

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The Philippine Republic (Spanish: República Filipina), more commonly known as the First Philippine Republic or the Malolos Republic (to distinguish it from the rest of the republics that were established and to distinguish it from the present-day Republic of the Philippines) was a short-lived government in the Philippines. It was formally established with the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution on January 23, 1899 in Malolos,[1] Bulacan until the capture and surrender of Emilio Aguinaldo to the American forces on March 23, 1901 in Palanan, Isabela, which effectively dissolved the First Republic.

The establishment of the Philippine Republic was the culmination of the Philippine Revolution against Spanish rule. Independence was declared on June 12, 1898.[2] A dictatorial government headed by Emilio Aguinaldo was proclaimed on 18 June, and replaced on 23 June by a revolutionary government, also headed by Aguinaldo.[3][4] The Malolos Congress convened on 15 September, and produced the Malolos Constitution.[5] That constitution was proclaimed on 22 January 1899, transforming the government into what is known today as the First Philippine Republic, with Aguinaldo as its president.[6] In the meantime, on December 10, 1898, the Treaty of Paris had been signed, ending the Spanish-American War. Article 3 of the treaty transferred the Philippines from Spain to the United States.[7]

The Philippine-American War then ensued. Aguinaldo was captured by U.S. forces on March 23, 1901 and swore an oath accepting the authority of the United States over the Philippines and pledging his allegiance to the American government. On April 19, he issued a Proclamation of Formal Surrender to the United States, telling his followers to lay down their weapons and give up the fight, effectively ending the First Philippine Republic.[8] Subsequently, the U.S. continued its annexation of the islands pursuant to the Treaty of Paris.[9][10] The Philippines was under US sovereignty until 1946, when formal independence was granted by the Treaty of Manila.[11]

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